• Equities

Risk: Adjusting returns

Thinking about risk as losing money and the trade-offs involved in assessing risk and return.

1 minute read

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Someone once said that the first rule of investment is “don’t lose money” and the second rule is “don’t forget the first rule”. This sounds facile, yet it is a profound statement that is central to how we think about risk. The reason for this lies in the distinction between the calculation of arithmetic average versus geometric average returns and the fact that aggregate portfolio returns are compounded over time.

The chance of gain is by every man more or less overvalued, and the chance of loss is by most men undervalued

Imagine a coin flip where each outcome is equally likely, but heads pays 60 per cent, while tails loses 50 per cent. This sounds like an attractive bet since the expected return is the arithmetic average of 5 per cent. Indeed, some active fund managers would describe this return profile as asymmetric, offering greater upside than downside. But let’s roll the exercise forwards: a positive 60 per cent return followed by a negative 50 per cent loss followed by positive 60 per cent gain then negative 50 per cent. Despite the arithmetic average remaining at 5 per cent, the geometric average multiplies each outcome such that our errant coin flipper has lost 36 per cent of their starting capital.

What was presented as a seemingly attractive bet overlooks the fact that a 100 per cent return is required to return to breakeven after being down 50 per cent.  When assessing a prospective investment it is not enough to merely quantify the upside because the mathematics of compounding returns make it very difficult to recover from catastrophic losses. Accordingly, our priority should be not to lose.

What is true at the individual stock level also holds true for a portfolio. An investor who receives 16 per cent annually for a decade end ups better off than an investor who earns 20 per cent a year for nine years and then loses 15 per cent the tenth year. Again, the mathematics of geometric compounding are responsible for the deleterious effect of one bad year on overall performance. This is what makes capture ratio a suitable metric for assessing fund returns on a risk-adjusted basis.

By giving attention to how a fund performs during negative periods for the market can show otherwise positive returns in a different light. For example, imagine a market that returns 16 per cent for nine years and loses 16 per cent in the tenth year. One fund unexcitingly performs in-line with the market during the up years but falls by half as much in the final year. Overall it beats the market by one percent annualised with a capture ratio of 2.00. Another fund excitingly beats the market by four percent during the up years but falls by twice as much in the down year. While it has outperformed by a similar amount, the far inferior capture ratio of 0.63 speaks to the risk-adjusted manner in which these returns where achieved. 

Key risks

For further information on the risks and risk profiles of our funds, please refer to the relevant KIID and Prospectus.

The value of an investment and any income from it can go down as well as up and can fluctuate in response to changes in currency exchange rates. Investors may not get back the original amount invested.

Emerging markets risk

The fund invests in emerging markets; these markets may be volatile and carry higher risk than developed markets.

Derivatives risk

The fund uses derivatives; these can be complex and highly volatile. Derivatives may not perform as expected, which means the fund may suffer significant losses.

Illiquid securities risk

Certain assets held in the fund could, by nature, be hard to value or to sell at a desired time or at a price considered to be fair (especially in large quantities), and as a result their prices could be very volatile.

Concentration risk

The fund invests in a small portfolio of securities. Losses from a single investment may be more detrimental to the overall fund performance than if a larger number of investments were made.


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Important information

Except where stated as otherwise, the source of all information is Aviva Investors Global Services Limited (“Aviva Investors”) as at November 2019. Unless stated otherwise any opinions expressed are those of Aviva Investors. They should not be viewed as indicating any guarantee of return from an investment managed by Aviva Investors nor as advice of any nature. 

Past performance is not a guide to future performance. 

The Prospectus and Key Investor Information Document (KIID), are available, together with the Report and Accounts of the SICAV, free of charge from Aviva Investors Luxembourg, 2 rue du Fort Bourbon 1st Floor.L-1249 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg R.C.S. Luxembourg B25708, Aviva Investors, St Helen’s, 1 Undershaft, London EC3P 3DQ The Prospectus is available in English and German. Where a sub fund of the SICAV is registered for public distribution in a jurisdiction, a KIID in the official language of that jurisdiction will be available.

Issued by Aviva Investors Global Services Limited, the Investment Manager to the Fund registered in England No. 1151805.  Registered Office: St Helens, 1 Undershaft, London, EC3P 3DQ.  Authorised and regulated by the Financial Conduct Authority (Firm Reference No. 1191780).