Patient conviction: Beyond ‘active share’

Managing high active share portfolios with low turnover fosters an analytical edge.

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In recent years portions of the fund management industry have been accused of ‘closet indexing’. That is, some funds have been found to be indistinct from the benchmarks they aim to beat yet charge a high fee for this supposedly ‘active’ management of a portfolio. In response, asset management groups have taken to profiling the ‘active share’ of their funds. This is a holdings-based measure of how significantly a portfolio overlaps with its benchmark: owning fewer stocks drives higher active share.  

My ventures are not in one bottom trusted,

Nor to one place, nor is my whole estate,

Upon the fortune of this present year.

Therefore my merchandise makes me not sad.

The Merchant of Venice

Active share, however, is not a panacea for performance, as it simply increases the statistical likelihood that portfolio returns will deviate from those of an index without indicating whether that performance is positive or negative. Stockpicking ability is required to increase the chance of a beneficial outcome. 

Yet the uncomfortable truth is that most stocks are losers, failing to beat cash, because the distribution of individual stock returns is non-normal, with very fat tails. One study has found that the entire gain in the US stock market from 1926 to 2015 can be attributable to just the top-performing four percent of listed stocks.1 How, then, to balance this tension: on the one hand, fund managers must create concentrated portfolios with high active share; on the other, the fewer stocks they hold, the less likely they are to own some of the very big winners?

Studies have shown that funds which combine high active share with low turnover have a propensity to outperform.2

We contend that there is something about asking the simple – but not necessarily easy – question, ‘am I willing to own to own a lot of this stock for potentially a very long time?’ which itself becomes a source of analytical advantage. It focuses the investment debate and leads practitioners to play a different game. 

On a month-to-month basis share price returns are dominated by fluctuations in the valuation multiple driven by market sentiment. News-flow and emotions are inherently unpredictable and difficult to anticipate. In contrast, over a multi-year period the valuation multiple becomes overwhelmed by corporate performance measured in changes to returns on capital and cash flow. 

Forecasting future business fundamentals is generally fraught with difficulty. Accordingly, our investment approach seeks out opportunities where islands of relative predictability exist, that enable us to narrow the widening cone of uncertainty that inevitably widens out as one extends time horizons.

Trends like cloud connectivity, electric locks and biopharmaceutical process manufacturers are current examples of themes that have an element of predictability baked in to them. In the case of cloud computing and electric locks, this predictability comes from an inevitable trend being replicated geographically. However, in the case of biopharmaceutical process manufacturers, predictability can be achieved by staking investment further upstream from initial development of drug products – thereby reducing risk. 

Key risks

For further information on the risks and risk profiles of our funds, please refer to the relevant KIID and Prospectus.

The value of an investment and any income from it can go down as well as up and can fluctuate in response to changes in currency exchange rates. Investors may not get back the original amount invested.

Emerging markets risk

The fund invests in emerging markets; these markets may be volatile and carry higher risk than developed markets.

Derivatives risk

The fund uses derivatives; these can be complex and highly volatile. Derivatives may not perform as expected, which means the fund may suffer significant losses.

Illiquid securities risk

Certain assets held in the fund could, by nature, be hard to value or to sell at a desired time or at a price considered to be fair (especially in large quantities), and as a result their prices could be very volatile.

Concentration risk

The fund invests in a small portfolio of securities. Losses from a single investment may be more detrimental to the overall fund performance than if a larger number of investments were made.

References

  1. Hendrik Bessembinder, 'Do Stocks Outperform Treasury Bills?', 28 May 2018, Journal of Financial Economics (JFE)
  2. Martijn Cremersa and Ankur Pareek, ‘Patient Capital Outperformance: The Investment Skill of High Active Share Managers Who Trade Infrequently’, November 2016; Goldman Sachs, ‘An Rx for Active Management Management: A Behavioral & Market Case Study’, 2017

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Important information

Except where stated as otherwise, the source of all information is Aviva Investors Global Services Limited (“Aviva Investors”) as at November 2019. Unless stated otherwise any opinions expressed are those of Aviva Investors. They should not be viewed as indicating any guarantee of return from an investment managed by Aviva Investors nor as advice of any nature. 

Past performance is not a guide to future performance. 

The Prospectus and Key Investor Information Document (KIID), are available, together with the Report and Accounts of the SICAV, free of charge from Aviva Investors Luxembourg, 2 rue du Fort Bourbon 1st Floor.L-1249 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg R.C.S. Luxembourg B25708, Aviva Investors, St Helen’s, 1 Undershaft, London EC3P 3DQ The Prospectus is available in English and German. Where a sub fund of the SICAV is registered for public distribution in a jurisdiction, a KIID in the official language of that jurisdiction will be available.

Issued by Aviva Investors Global Services Limited, the Investment Manager to the Fund registered in England No. 1151805.  Registered Office: St Helens, 1 Undershaft, London, EC3P 3DQ.  Authorised and regulated by the Financial Conduct Authority (Firm Reference No. 1191780).